Great post. You mentioned that the use of Morphine was for pain management. I believe there are other uses for this medication. In the past, “morphine has been reported to reduce preload, heart rate, and possibly afterload, the net effect of which is a reduction in myocardial oxygen demand” (Coons, et al, 2011). But, “recent observational analysis….suggested that the use of morphine is associated with worse outcomes in acute heart failure syndrome(AHFS) , including the need for mechanical ventilation, a longer length of stay, a higher ICU admission rate, and a higher overall risk-adjusted mortality”(Coons, et al, 2011). Guidelines are now to only use morphine in patients with severe symptoms of AHFS along with restlessness, anxiety, dyspnea or chest pain.

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